Bahrain Vacation TripsBahrain History - Discovery of petroleum
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Oil was discovered in 1932 and brought rapid modernization to Bahrain. This discovery made relations with the United Kingdom closer, as evidenced by the British establishing more bases there. British influence would continue to grow as the country developed, culminating with the appointment of Charles Belgrave as an advisor; Belgrave established modern education systems in Bahrain. After World War II, increasing anti-British sentiment spread throughout the Arab World and led to riots in Bahrain. The riots focused on the Jewish community, which counted among its members distinguished writers and singers, accountants, engineers and middle managers working for the Oil Company, textile merchants with business all over the peninsula, and free professionals. Following the events of 1947, most members of Bahrain's Jewish community abandoned their properties and evacuated to Bombay, later settling in Palestine and the United Kingdom. As of 2007, 36 Jews remained in the country. The issue of compensation was never settled. In 1960, the United Kingdom put Bahrain's future to international arbitration and requested that the United Nations Secretary-General take on this responsibility.
In 1970, Iran laid claim to Bahrain and the other Persian Gulf islands. However, in an agreement with the United Kingdom it agreed "not to pursue" its claims on Bahrain if its other claims were realized. The following plebiscite saw Bahrainis confirm their Arab identity and independence from Britain. Bahrain to this day remains a member of the Arab League and Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. The British withdrew from Bahrain on 16 December 1971, making Bahrain an independent emirate. The oil boom of the 1970s greatly benefited Bahrain, but its downturn hurt. However, the country had already begun to diversify its economy, and had benefited from the Lebanese civil war that began in the 1970s; Bahrain replaced Beirut as the Middle East's financial hub as Lebanon's large banking sector was driven out of the country by the war. After the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran, Bahraini Shī'a fundamentalists in 1981 orchestrated a failed coup attempt under the auspices of a front organization, the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Bahrain. The coup would have installed a Shī'a cleric exiled in Iran, Hujjatu l-Islām Hādī al-Mudarrisī, as supreme leader heading a theocratic government. In 1994, a wave of rioting by disaffected Shīa Islamists was sparked by women's participation in a sporting event.
During the mid-1990s, the Kingdom was badly affected by sporadic violence between the government and the cleric-led opposition in which over forty people were killed. In March 1999, King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah succeeded his father as head of state and instituted elections for parliament, gave women the right to vote, and released all political prisoners. These moves were described by Amnesty International as representing an "historic period of human rights". The country was declared a kingdom in 2002. It formerly was considered a State and officially called a "Kingdom".
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Bahrain History: Pre-Islamic - Islamic conversion and Portuguese control - Origin of the Bani Utbah Tribe
1783: rising power of Bani Utbah - Al Khalifa ascendancy to Bahrain and their treaties with the British
Discovery of petroleum - Bahrain Politics - Bahrain Governorates - Bahrain Economy - Bahrain Geography
Bahrain Climate - Bahrain Demographics - Bahrain Culture: Language and Religion
Formula One & Other Motorsports Events - Bahrain Military - Bahrain Education - Bahrain Tourism
Bahrain Tourist Attractions: Al Fateh Mosque - Al Khamis Mosque - Arad Fort - Bab Al Bahrain - Bahrain Fort
Bahrain Grand Prix - Bahrain National Museum - Barbar Temple - Beit Al Qur'an - Dilmun Burial Mounds
Scuba Diving - First Oil Well - Horse riding - King Fahd Causeway - Riffa Fort - Tree of Life