Palestine Travel Guide

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Palestine History - Roman Rule (63 BCE)

Though General Pompey arrived in 63 BCE, Roman rule was solidified when Herod, whose dynasty was of Idumean ancestry, was appointed as king. Urban planning under the Romans was characterized by cities designed around the Forum – the central intersection of two main streets – the Cardo, running north-south and the Decumanus running east-west. Cities were connected by an extensive road network developed for economic and military purposes. Among the most notable archaeological remnants from this era are Herodium to the south of Bethlehem, Masada and Caesarea Maritima. Herod arranged a renovation of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, with a massive expansion of the Temple Mount platform and major expansion of the Jewish Temple around 19 BCE. The Temple Mount's natural plateau was extended by enclosing the area with four massive retaining walls and filling the voids. This artificial expansion resulted in a large flat expanse which today forms the eastern section of the Old City of Jerusalem.

Around the time associated with the birth of Jesus, Roman Palestine was in a state of disarray and direct Roman rule was re-established. The early Christians were oppressed and while most inhabitants became Romanized, others, particularly Jews, found Roman rule to be unbearable.

As a result of the First Jewish-Roman War, Titus sacked Jerusalem destroying the Second Temple, leaving only supporting walls, including the Western Wall.

In 135, following the fall of a Jewish revolt led by Bar Kokhba in 132–135, the Roman emperor Hadrian attempted the expulsion of Jews from Judea. His attempt was as unsuccessful as were most of Rome's many attempts to alter the demography of the Empire; this is demonstrated by the continued existence of the rabbinical academy of Lydda in Judea, and in any case large Jewish populations remained in Samaria and the Galilee. Tiberias became the headquarters of exiled Jewish patriarchs. The Romans joined the province of Judea together with Galilee to form a new province, called Syria Palaestina, to complete the disassociation with Judaea. Notwithstanding the oppression, some two hundred Jewish communities remained. Gradually, certain religious freedoms were restored to the Jewish population, such as exemption from the imperial cult and internal self-administration. The Romans made no such concession to the Samaritans, to whom religious liberties were denied, while their sanctuary on Mt.Gerizim was defiled by a pagan temple, as part of measures were taken to suppress the resurgence of Samaritan nationalism.

In 132 CE, the Emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina and renamed Jerusalem "Aelia Capitolina" and built temples there to honor Jupiter. Christianity was practiced in secret and the Hellenization of Palestine continued under Septimius Severus. New pagan cities were founded in Judea at Eleutheropolis, Diopolis, and Nicopolis.


Travel Quotes:

Wherever you go, go with all your heart. Confucius

The world is a book, and those who do not travel read only a page. Saint Augustine


Palestine Travel Informations and Jordan Travel Guide
Palestine Origin of Name - Palestine Boundaries - Additional Extrabiblical References - Palestine Biblical Texts

Palestine History: Paleolithic & Neolithic Periods - Chalcolithic Period & Bronze Age - Iron Age
Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Period - Persian Rule
Classical Antiquity: Hellenistic Rule - Hasmonean Dynasty - Roman Rule - Byzantine Rule
Islamic Period - Arab Caliphate Rule - Umayyad Rule - A Bbasid Rule - Fatimid Rule - Crusader Rule - Mamluk Rule
Ottoman Rule - Egyptian Rule - Ottoman Rule (1841-1917) - 20th Century - British Mandate
Infrastructure and development
- 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine - World War II and Palestine
End of the British Mandate 1945-1948
- UN partition and the 1948 Palestine War - Current Status

Palestine Demographics: Early Demographics - Demographics in the late Ottoman & the British Mandate Periods
Official reports - Current Demographics

Palestine Tourism
Palestine Tourist Attractions: Tabriz - Jifna - Hebron glass - Odessa - Damascus - History of Haifa - Narrow Gauge Railway
Jezreel Valley railway - Khirbat Jiddin - Sea of Galilee - Kawkab al-Hawa - Palestinian Cuisine - Al-Khader - Jaffa
Natal, Rio Grande do Norte


Arab Cuisines, Arabic Names, Baghdad, Bahrain, Camels, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman
Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen

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2018-06-18T03:41:54-04:00